‘At Any Cost: How Ukrainians Think about Self-Defense Against Russia’, published in the American Journal of Political Science, analyses a survey of 1,160 Ukrainians in July 2022. The findings suggest that Ukrainians reject political or territorial concessions, regardless of the costs, which include civilian fatalities, military fatalities and nuclear risk. For example, of the people surveyed, 79% opposed all options that would lead to a Russian-controlled government in Kyiv. This provides the first observational evidence that citizens resisting external aggression do not necessarily make cost-benefit calculations when evaluating their approach to self-defence, as has been seen in Western countries. The paper is authored by new Dame Louise Richardson Chair in Global Security Janina Dill, along with colleagues Marnie Howlett and Carl Müller-Crepon.