How do domestic politics shape participation in transnational climate governance?

As the UN climate negotiations enter their third decade, an extraordinary groundswell of climate action has emerged from cities, companies, civil society groups, and other sub- and non-state actors. Ranging from individual emissions reduction in municipalities to broad, multi-stakeholder partnerships on a variety of issues, this so-called "transnational climate governance" (TCG) represents an extraordinary innovation in global governance. But does it offer a solution to the climate problem? Can it fill some of the "governance gap" left by multilateral gridlock? And are these "bottom up" actions substitutes or alternatives for national policies, or are they complementary to them?

The paper, co-authored by Dr Thomas Hale, makes an important contribution to these questions by providing the first mapping and analysis of transnational climate governance around the world.