Monica Duffy Toft

Professor of Government and Public Policy

Before joining the Blavatnik School of Government in 2012, Professor Monica Duffy Toft taught at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. While there she directed the Initiative on Religion in International Affairs and was the assistant director of the John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies. She was educated at the University of Chicago (MA and PhD in political science) and at the University of California, Santa Barbara (BA in political science and Slavic languages and literature, summa cum laude). Prior to this, she spent four years in the United States Army as a Russian linguist.

Monica’s areas of research include international security, ethnic and religious violence, civil wars and demography. Her most recent books include: Securing the Peace (Princeton, 2011); Political Demography (with Jack Goldstone and Eric Kaufmann, Oxford, 2012); and God’s Century (with Daniel Philpott and Timothy Shah, Norton, 2012).

In addition she has published numerous scholarly articles and editorials on civil wars, territory and nationalism, demography, and religion in global politics. Her article Islamists and Nationalists: Rebel Motivation and Counterinsurgency in Russia's North Caucasus co-authored with Yuri Zhukov was published in the American Political Science Review in May 2015. Her most recent opinion pieces are on religious fundamentalism and women's equality in the Huffington Post and on the importance of identity politics for Iraq's security at Project Syndicate, a column that appeared in 19 publications in five different languages. Monica can also be found on Twitter @mduffytoft.

Affiliations: Monica is a Professor of Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government, supernumerary fellow at Brasenose College, University of Oxford, a Global Scholar of the Peace Research Institute Oslo, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Minorities at Risk Advisory Board, the Political Instability Task Force, and in 2008 the Carnegie Foundation of New York named her a Carnegie Scholar for her research on religion and violence.

Professor Monica Toft is on leave for the academic year 2016-2017 during which time she will be Professor of Strategy for the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island.

Monica Duffy Toft works on international relations within the wider field of political science, encompassing international relations theory, security studies, global politics, ethnic and religious violence, civil wars, and demography. The title of Monica’s PhD dissertation from the University of Chicago was “The Geography of Ethnic Conflict”.

Monica’s main research interests focus on understanding political violence and war. Most of her scholarship can be encompassed under four broad rubrics:

1. Rationality, Bargaining and War

2. Territory and Violence

3. Demography and National Security

4. Religion in Global Politics

1. Rationality, Bargaining, and War

Monica’s core areas of research interest include security studies and international relations theory with an emphasis on sub-state violence: in particular, she is interested in why people – as members of states, ethnic groups, nations, and religious communities – are willing to undertake violence in pursuit of their social, economic, or political objectives, even if it means that they or their children might die. Answering this question has led her to develop a number of theoretical frameworks for understanding this dynamic, including providing insight into the importance of territory in bargaining situations between states and ethnic groups; the problem of issue indivisibility; and time horizons in motivating people.

Related scholarship includes:

Her column Defending a divided Iraq with Project Syndicate appeared in 19 publications in five different languages.

2. Territory and Violence

Monica has explored the central role of territory in the onset, continuation, termination and recurrence of large-scale violence. She has highlighted the key role that conceptions of homeland play in secessionist struggles and insights from evolutionary theory to help us to understand why fights over worthless territory come about.

Related scholarship includes:

3. Demography and National Security

Monica also looks at the connection between demography and interstate and sub-state politics. She interested in how population dynamics and settlement patterns change (resulting from fertility rates and immigration, for example) and then how those changes affect political instability, violence, and war. This research includes global assessments of ethnic and religious groups, as well as in-depth analysis of the demographics of religious groups in India. In February 2015, she took part in a panel discussion on the future of political demography and its impact on policy.

Related scholarship includes:

4. Religion in Global Politics

Drawing on the arguments and data from her 2007 International Security article, Monica explores conceptions of rationality (issues referenced in her 2006 Security Studies article) involved in the difference between nationalism and religious belief in the political sphere, and the conditions under which political and religious elites outbid one another to mobilize populations. When outbidding occurs, violence is often the result—a dynamic that occurs more often in Islamic societies and therefore explains why Islam is currently over-represented in the catalogue of religious civil wars. In addition to updating and expanding her civil war data, she has conducted fieldwork in Russia and Sudan to interview politicians, religious leaders, and academics.

Related scholarship includes:

Grants and awards: Most recently she was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to Norway for the 2012–2013 academic year.

 

Civil War dataset (XLS)

Civil war codebook (PDF)

Why Islamist insurgents are so difficult to coerce
Washington Post (USA), 05/05/2015, Monica Duffy Toft and Yuri Zhukov
Monica Duffy Toft, professor of government and public policy at the University of Oxford’s Blavatnik School of Government, co-authors an article which discusses her recent research, with Yuri Zhukov, on Salafi-Jihadi violence in Russia’s North Caucasus. They found that ‘selective counterinsurgency tactics are unlikely to succeed in hurting groups like the Islamic State or to deter their continued assaults. Using unique micro-level data, we analyzed violence involving nationalist and Islamist insurgents in the North Caucasus and Moscow’s efforts to counter them. We found that Islamist and nationalist rebels respond differently to coercion. While selective attacks outperform indiscriminate ones in deterring nationalist rebels, the technology of government violence has little effect on the resolve and capabilities of Islamists. Their divergent ideologies do matter – but primarily because of how they shape the relative dependence of armed groups on local versus external sources of support.’

http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2015/05/05/why-islamist-insurgents-are-so-difficult-to-coerce/

Master of Public Policy

With Professor Paul Collier, Monica co-convenes the module Policy Challenge I: Natural Resources: Curse or Blessing? This intensive introduction to the challenges of governing well focuses on the management of natural resources. Countries that discover oil, gas, or other riches face a “resource curse” unless they can govern their way to enjoying a “resource blessing”. The three-day intensive module introduces the key issues and dilemmas faced by states and policy-makers attempting to manage newly-discovered resource wealth. Through seminars and case-based group work students interact with leading scholars and practitioners (from Oxford and beyond). Students learn core elements of a government’s resource strategy - from estimating resource wealth, assessing its ownership, extracting it, and managing the gains. The underlying objective of this module is to illustrate the importance for policymakers of being attentive to different perspectives and dimensions of public problems.

With Professor Anne Davies and Dr Maya Tudor, Monica co-convenes the module Core III: The Organization and Practice of Government. The Organization and Practice of Government module helps prepare students to be more effective and critical participants in developing and implementing public policy across diverse institutional contexts. Since governments are often stymied in their efforts to both generate and to implement effective policy, the core objective of this course is to provide students with an understanding of why governments face these challenges and how best to identify and utilize the political determinants of policymaking. Part A, in Hilary Term, pursues these objectives by examining the insights offered primarily by political scientists, and Part B, in Trinity Term, considers the legal dimensions of policymaking.

With Dr Ivan Arreguín-Toft and Dr Tom Simpson, Monica also co-convenes the option Security. This option introduces students to foundational issues in security and strategic affairs. It is designed to give students a fundamental understanding of national security, military strategy and how militaries work. The course is organized around four main themes: national security and strategy (concepts and resources, including consideration of defense spending); institutions of order and military literacy (including the role and employment of different service arms; police versus armies; the basics of how weapons work; ranks; discipline and drill; conscripted versus professional); the changing nature of warfare and of armed service – such as the importance of local legitimacy, the warrior’s expanded skill set, PTSD, integration of homosexuals and women, procurement and retention issues, nuclear, smart-weapon capitalization (drones, robots, cyber), civil wars, terrorism, intervention, private armies and trends in violence; and the ethics of warfare and policing (including surveillance and privacy issues).

DPhil in Public Policy

Monica is a DPhil supervisor for the new DPhil in Public Policy programme at BSG. The programme is a research degree which is also rooted in and relevant to current policy challenges. Students meet and interact with leading public policy practitioners and work in an interdisciplinary environment where issues rather than the nuances of debates within specific academic disciplines would take priority in the formation and execution of research questions and strategies. Students also benefit from a new and DPhil specific set of seminars in Public Policy Analysis and Research, and seminars in Research Development.

Books

Faith as Reason: The Role of Religion and Nationalism in Political Violence, in progress.
God’s Century: Resurgent Religion and Global Politics, co-authored with Daniel Philpott and Timothy Samuel Shah (Norton, 2011).
 

Edited volumes

Rethinking Religion and World Affairs, co-edited with Timothy S. Shah and Alfred C. Stepan (Oxford, 2012).
Political Demography: How Population Changes are Reshaping International Security and National Politics, co-edited with Jack Goldstone and Eric Kaufmann (Oxford, 2012).
The Fog of Peace and War Planning: Military and Strategic Planning under Uncertainty, co-edited with Talbot Imlay (Routledge, 2006).
 

Refereed articles

"Islamists and Nationalists: Rebel Motivation and Counterinsurgency in Russia's North Caucasus," with Yuri Zhukov, American Political Science Review forthcoming, May 2015.
"Correspondence: Evolution and Territorial Conflict," International Security 39,3 (2014/15): 190-201.
"Bringing “Geo” Back into Politics: Evolution, Territoriality and the Contest over Ukraine," with Dominic Johnson, Cliodynamics: The Journal of Quantitative History and Cultural Evolution 5, 1 (2014): 87-122.
"Death by Demography: 1979 as the Turning Point for the Soviet Union," International Area Studies Review 17, 2 (2014): 184-204.
"Grounds for War," with Dominic Johnson, International Security 38, 3 (Winter 2013/2014): 7-38.
Territory and War,” Journal of Peace Research 51,2 (2014): 185-198.
“The Domestic Scapegoat: Persecution of Minorities as Outbidding,” The Review of Faith and International Affairs (Autumn, 2013).
Punishment and Denial in the North Caucasus: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Coercive Counterinsurgency,” with Yuri Zhukov, Journal of Peace Research 49, 6 (2012): 785-800.
Self-Determination, Secession and Civil War,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Summer 2012.
Correspondence on “Ending Civil Wars? A Case for Rebel Victory,”” International Security, Summer 2011.
Ending Civil Wars? A Case for Rebel Victory,” International Security, Spring 2010.
Promises and Pitfalls in the Spatial Prediction of Ethnic Violence: A Comment,” co-authored with Nils B. Wiedmann, Conflict Management and Peace Science, 2009.
Dynamics of Self-Determination,” with Stephen Saideman, Peace and Conflict 2010, Paradigm, 2009.
Power Shifts and Civil War: A Test of Power Transition Theory,” International Interactions 33, 3 (July-September 2007).
Getting Religion? The Puzzling Case of Islam and Civil War,” International Security 31, 4 (2007).
The Myth of the Borderless World: Refugees and Repatriation Policy,” Conflict Management and Peace Science 24 (2007).
Religion, Civil War, and International Order,” Belfer Center Discussion Paper, August 2006.
"Issue Divisibility and Time Horizons as Rationalist Explanations for War,” Security Studies 15, 1 (January-March 2006).
The State of the Field: Demography and War,” ECSP Report, Issue 11, 2005.
Indivisible Territory, Geographic Concentration, and Ethnic War,” Security Studies, Winter 2002/03. 
Multinationality, Regions and State-Building: The Failed Transition in Georgia,” Regional and Federal Studies 11, 3 (Autumn 2001).
“The 1994 Russian Federal Budget Debate: Issues and Implications,” RAND Corporation, Policy Memorandum, September 1994. 
Adoption as an Issue of Local Justice,” with David P. McIntyre, Archives Européennes de sociologie, Spring 1992. 
 

Book chapters

"Ideas, Identity, and Violence," in Political Violence, Michael Boyle, ed. (Routledge, forthcoming 2015).
"Religion in Policy," in Religion and Public Policy: Human Rights, Conflict, and Ethics, Sumner B. Twiss, Marian Gh. Simion and Rodney L. Petersen, eds. (Cambridge, 2015).
"False Prophecies in the Service of Good Works," in Debating the Endtimes of Human Rights: Activism and Institutions in a Neo-Westphalian World, Doutje Lettinga and Lars van Troost, eds. (SSP/Amnesty International 2014).
“Religion in International Relations,” in Handbook of International Relations (Oxford, 2013).
“Religion and Violence,” in Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence (Oxford, 2012).
“Religion, Terrorism and Civil War,” in Rethinking Religion and World Affairs, Monica Duffy Toft, Timothy S. Shah and Alfred C. Stepan, eds. (Oxford, 2012).
“Introduction,” co-authored with Timothy Samuel Shah and Alfred Stepan in Rethinking Religion and World Affairs, Monica Duffy Toft, Timothy S. Shah and Alfred C. Stepan, eds. (Oxford, 2012).
“Wombfare: The Religious Basis of Fertility Politics,” in Population Change and National Security, Monica Duffy Toft, Jack Goldstone and Eric Kaufmann, eds. (Oxford 2012).
“Introduction,” co-authored with Eric Kaufmann in Population Change and National Security, Monica Duffy Toft, Jack Goldstone and Eric Kaufmann, eds. (Oxford, 2012).
“Religion, Rationality and Violence,” in Religion and International Relations, Jack Snyder, ed. (Columbia, 2011).
“God and the Global Resurgence of Religion,” co-authored with Timothy Samuel Shah, in Blind Spot: Religious Illiteracy and the Media, Paul Marshall ed. (Oxford, 2009).
“The Origins of Ethnic Wars: A Historical and Critical Account,” in Handbook of War Studies III, Manus Midlarsky, ed.(University of Michigan Press, 2009).
“The Fog of Peace,” co-authored with Talbot Imlay in The Fog of Peace and War Planning, Monica Duffy Toft and Talbot Imlay, eds. (Routledge, 2006).
“Understanding Fogs of Peace,” co-authored with Talbot Imlay in The Fog of Peace and War Planning, Monica Duffy Toft and Talbot Imlay, eds. (Routledge, 2006).
“Ajaria” in the World Book, 2006.
“Ossetia” in the World Book, 2006.
“Two-way Mirror Nationalism: The Case of Ajaria,” in The Caspian Region: Vol II, The Caucasus, Moshe Gammer, ed. (Routledge, 2002).
“Multinationality, Regions and State-Building: The Failed Transition in Georgia,” in Ethnicity and Territory in the Former Soviet Union, James Hughes and Gwendolyn Sasse, eds. (Frank Cass, 2001). 
 

Non-refereed articles, policy papers, and book reviews 

“Religion and Civil Conflict,” Concept Paper for the World Bank’s annual world development report, Conflict, Security and Development, 2011.
“A Review of the Academic Literature on Self-Determination” Paper prepared for the Political Instability Task Force, June 2010.
“War in Sudan and the Prospects for Peace,” Paper prepared for the Political Instability Task Force, June 2010.
“Commentary” on Benjamin Miller’s “States, Nations and Regional War,” Ethnopolitics, 2009.
“Review: Potentials of Disorder, Jan Koehler and Christopher Zurcher, eds.” Slavic Review, Spring 2005.
“Review: The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance, Karen Ballentine, et al. eds,” Political Science Quarterly, Fall 2004.
Review: War and Reconciliation, William J. Long and Peter Brecke,” Journal of Cold War Studies, Winter 2003. 
“Review: The Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict, Volumes 1-3, Lester Kurtz, editor,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Fall 2000).
“Review: The Dynamics of Secession, Viva Ona Bartkus,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 115, No. 1 (Spring 2000).
“Review: Church, Nation and State in Russia and Ukraine, Lubomyr Hajda and Mark Beissinger, editors,” Nationalities Papers, Vol. 24 (Spring 1996).
“Review: The Nationalities Factor in Soviet Politics and Society, Geoffrey Hosking, editor,” Nationalities Papers, Vol. 24 (Spring 1996).
“Review: Political Deomography: How Population Changes are Reshaping International Security and National Politics, Jack A. Goldstone, Eric P. Kaufmann & Monica Duffy Toft (eds), Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 45, 2, pp. 177-179.
 
 

Selected op-eds and blogs

Defending a divided Iraq, Project Syndicate (2014).
The Dangers of Secularism in the Middle East, with Daniel Philpott and Timothy Samuel Shah, Christian Science Monitor (11 August 2011).
God and Terror, with Timothy Samuel Shah and Daniel Philpott, Public Discourse (20 May 2011).
God and Democratic Diplomacy, with Timothy Samuel Shah and Daniel Philpott, Public Discourse (18 May 2011).
God and Political Science, with Timothy Samuel Shah and Daniel Philpott, Public Discourse (16 May 2011).
God's Partisans Are Back, with Daniel Philpott and Timothy Samuel Shah, The Chronicle of Higher Education (17 April 2011).
Religious Actors Can Be Democratizers, Huffington Post (1 February 2011).
Working Toward a Russia For All, with Simon Saradzhyan, Moscow Times (22 December 2010).
Understanding Rationality in Religious Violence, The Huffington Post (14 June 2010).
Religion Matters in International Relations, The Huffington Post (1 March 2010).
A Risky Prospect for Iraq, Foreign Policy (June 30, 2009).
Nasty, Brutish and Long, Prospect (May 2009).
Russia’s Recipe for Empire, Foreign Policy (September 2008).
Why Islam Lies at the Heart of Iraq's Civil War, Christian Science Monitor (2 June 2008).
Iraq is gone. Now what? Washington Post (13 November 2006).
Religion's Flame Burns Brighter Than Ever, with Timothy Samuel Shah, Baltimore Sun (20 August 2006).
Why God is Winning, with Timothy Samuel Shah, Foreign Policy, (July-August 2006).
When Terrorists Go Mainstream, The Boston Globe (27 January 2006).
'Peace with honor' in Iraq, with Ivan Arrequin-Toft, The Boston Globe (25 October 2004).
 

Conference and working papers

"Political Demography and National Security," Global Strategic Trends Conference, RUSI, London, October 2014.
"The Religious Freedom Agenda in US Grand Strategy," paper presented at the Annual Conference on US Foreign Policy, London School of Economics, September 2014.
"Conflict and Violence in the 21st Century," paper presented at Global Leadership Workshop, Harvard University, September 2014.
"Demographic Transitions and Political Conflict," paper presented at Conference on Perceptions of Security and Governance in de facto and partially recognized States," University College London, September 2014.
"Media Coverage of Rape in Congo," paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Seattle WA, September 2014.
"States of War and Peace: Insights in the 21st Century," Plenary speech and paper for presentation at OxPeace Annual Conference, May 2014.
"Death by Demography," Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Toronto, Canada, March 2014.
"Religion, Nationalism and Insurgency," Paper prepared for presentation at the Yale University Religion Workshop, Yale University, New Haven (CT), November 2013.
"Rape in Congo: A Unique or Paradigmatic Case?" Paper prepared for presentation at the 1325 RWG Workshop, London, UK, October 2013.
“Religion and International Security,” Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Seattle, WA, (forthcoming) April 2013.
“Religion and Foreign Policy,” Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, November 2012. 
 “Religious Actors and Democratization,” co-authored with Daniel Philpott and Timothy Shah, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Seattle, WA, September 2011.
“Contagion and Diffusion of Violence in the Caucasus,” co-authored with Yuri Zhukov, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Toronto, Canada, March 2011.
“Differential Population Dynamics, Inequality and Political Violence in India,” co-authored with Erika Forsberg, Gudrun Ostby, and Henrik Urdal, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Toronto, Canada, March 2011.
“Explaining the Global Resurgence of Religion,” paper presented at the Beijing Forum, Beijing, China, November 4–7, 2010.
“Time in International Relations Theory: The Missing Dimension,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC, September 2010.
“Religious Violence in the Caucasus: Local Grievance or Global Jihad?” with Yuri Zhukov, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, February 2010.
“Demography, Power Transition Theory, and Israel,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, February 2009.
“Demography and Security: The Case of Israel,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, August 2008.
“Taming Religion in Global Politics,” with Daniel Philpott and Timothy Shah, paper at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, San Francisco, CA, March 2008.
“Religion, Demography and War,” paper presented at the Religion and Violence Symposium, Webster University, St. Louis, Missouri, October 2007.
“God and Global Politics,” with Timothy Shah, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, August 29–September 1, 2007.
“Demographic Shifts and Security Policy: The Case of Israel,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, August 29-September 1, 2007.
“Demography and War,” keynote speech and paper presented at the Demography Conference, Association for the Study of Nationalities, London, September 2006.
“Biology and Rationality: The Evolution of Territorial Violence,” (with Dominic Johnson and Richard Wrangham), paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, 2006.
“Peace through Security: How to Make Negotiated Settlements Stick,” paper presented at the International Studies Association annual meeting, March 2006.
“An End to Victory?” paper presented at the International Studies Association annual meeting,  March 2-6, 2005.
“Demographic Transitions and Civil War,” paper presented at the International Studies Association annual meeting, March 2-6, 2005
 “An End to Victory?” paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, September 2-5, 2004.
“Demographic Transitions and Civil War,” paper presented at the Transitions Conference, Carmel, California, August 20–22, 2004.
“Civil War Termination: Past and Present,” paper presented at the Sixth Annual Human Rights Week, International Relations Council of Harvard College, March 16, 2004.
“Evolution of the International System and the Role of Civil Wars” paper presented at the International Criminal Law Regimes Workshop,” Washington, D.C., February 25-26, 2004.
“Peace through Victory?” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August 27–31,  2003.
“Issue Indivisibility and Time Horizons as Rationalist Explanations for War,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August 27–31,  2003.
“Chechnya: A Local War Meets Global Politics,” Paper presented at the Chechnia and its Russian Problem symposium, Ohio State University, Mershon Center, May 9, 2003.
“The Demographic Death of States,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, Massachusetts, August 28¬–September 1, 2002.
“Indivisible Territory and Ethnic War,” Weatherhead Center for International Affairs Working Paper, December 2001.
 “Repatriation of Refugees: A Failing Policy?” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., August 31–September 2, 2000. 
 “Regionalism in Georgia,” 50th Annual Political Science Association Conference, London, April 10–13, 2000. 
 “Internal and External Causes of Ethnic Conflict,” 38th Annual International Affairs Symposium, Lewis and Clark College, Portland, Oregon, April 3–5, 2000. 
 “Settlement Patterns, Territory, and Ethnic Conflict,” paper presented at U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and State Department, Societal Issues Group, Office of Transnational Issues Conference, “Anticipating Ethnic Conflict: Framing the Analysis,” Washington D.C., June 24, 1999. 
“Stability and Justice for All: The Dilemma of Intervention in Civil Wars,” with Ivan Arreguín-Toft, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, Georgia, September 2–5, 1999.
 “Two-Way Mirror Nationalism: The Case of Ajaria,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Nationalities, New York, New York, April 15–17, 1999.
“Ethnic Violence and the Case of Ajaria,” paper presented at Watson Institute for International Studies Conference,  “Preventing Ethnic Violence: Cases of the Former Soviet Union,” Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, April 13–14, 1999. 
“The Role of Territory in Bargaining between Nations and States: Double Value in Tatarstan, Chechnia, Abkhazia, and Ajaria.” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, Massachusetts, September 3–6, 1998.
“An Analysis of Settlement Patterns and Ethnic Conflict: With Statistics and Evidence from Chechnia and Tatarstan,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Nationalities, New York, New York, April 16–18, 1998.
 “Nations, States, and Violent Ethnic Conflict: Territory as Subject and Object,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., August 27–30, 1997. 
“The Geography of Ethnic Conflict: Do Settlement Patterns Matter?” paper presented at the Annual Midwest Political Science Association Conference, Chicago, Illinois, April 18–20, 1996.
 
Professor Monica Toft is interviewed on the complexity of the civil war in Syria
BBC World Service - Friday, 19 February, 2016
Professor Monica Toft quoted regarding the ceasefire efforts in Syria
The Guardian - Sunday, 14 February, 2016
Prof Monica Duffy Toft co-authors a piece on coercion in conflict
Washington Post - Tuesday, 5 May, 2015
An article exploring the political-religious nature of Israeli-Palestinian conflict seeks comment from Prof Monica Toft
Huffington Post (USA) - Thursday, 20 November, 2014
Prof Monica Toft reflects upon the threat by fundamentalist religious groups to women’s rights and equality
Cornerstone blog - Georgetown University - Thursday, 6 November, 2014
Understanding identity politics is essential for Iraq's security, says Monica Toft
Project Syndicate - Wednesday, 5 November, 2014
Blog by Prof Monica Duffy Toft about the importance of political demography.
New Security Beat - Monday, 11 August, 2014
Monica Toft explains her latest research on territorial conflict
Slate Magazine - Friday, 28 March, 2014